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DEUTZ(道依次) 德国  由历史上著名的四冲程发动机的发明者奥托于 1864 年创建,目前公司在德国有 4 个发动机厂,在全球有 17 个许可证和合作厂,所产柴油机功率范围从 5 至 5,000 马力,燃气机功率为 250 至 5,500 马力。
MAN(曼) 德国 MAN股份公司(MAN AG),前称“奥格斯堡-纽伦堡机械工厂股份公司”(Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG,又译作“曼股份公司”、“曼公司”),是一家控股公司位于德国巴伐利亚州首府慕尼黑的商用车、机器设备制造商,德国股票指数DAX的成分公司,世界500强之一,在全球有62,000名雇员,年销售额为150亿欧元,其中75%来自德国之外。旗下的MAN商用车股份公司是世界著名的重型卡车制造商之一。


Wilhelm Maybach (February 1846 – 29 December 1929) was an early German engine designer and industrialist. During the 1890s he was hailed in France, then the world centre for car production, as the "King of Designers".

From the late 19th century Wilhelm Maybach, together with Gottlieb Daimler, developed light, high-speed internal combustion engines suitable for land, water, and air use. These were fitted to the world's first motorcycle, motorboat, and after Daimler's death, to a new automobile introduced in late 1902, the Mercedes model, built to the specifications of Emil Jellinek.

Maybach rose to become technical director of the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, or DMG, (and never known by the English name of the quite separate English business, The Daimler Motor Company) but he did not get on well with its chairmen. As a result, Maybach left DMG in 1907 to found Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH together with his son Karl in 1909; they manufactured Zeppelin engines. After the signing of the Versailles Treaty in 1919 the company started producing large luxury vehicles, branded as "Maybach". The company joined the German war effort in 1940, ceasing automotive production in favour of tank engines, including those for the Tiger I and Tiger II heavy tanks.

Revived after the war Maybach Motorenbau which remained a subsidiary of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin was making diesel engines. During the 1960s Maybach came under the control of Daimler-Benz and was renamed MTU Friedrichshafen.

In 2002 the Maybach brand name was revived for a luxury make but it was not successful. On 25 November 2011 Daimler-Benz announced they would cease producing automobiles under the Maybach brand name in 2013. Daimler currently produces an ultra luxury edition of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class under the Mercedes-Maybach brand.


In 1869, Maybach followed Daimler to Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe AG in Karlsruhe, a manufacturer of heavy locomotives. Daimler was on the Executive Committee and they spent long nights discussing new designs for engines, pumps, lumber machinery, and metalworking.

In 1880, Daimler and Otto had serious disagreements which resulted in Daimler leaving Deutz-AG. Daimler received 112,000 goldmarks in Deutz-AG shares as compensation for patents granted to him and Maybach. Maybach also left shortly afterwards, and followed his friend to found a new company in Cannstatt.

In 1882, Maybach moved to Taubenheimstrasse in Cannstatt, Stuttgart where Daimler had purchased a house with 75,000 goldmarks from his Deutz compensation. They added a brick extension to the glass-fronted summer house in the garden, which became their workshop.

Their activities alarmed the neighbours who suspected they were engaged in counterfeiting. The police raided the property in their absence using the gardener's key, but found only engines.


By the end of 1885, Maybach and Daimler developed the first of their engines, which is regarded as a precursor to all modern petrol engines. It featured:

single vertical cylinder
air cooling
large cast-iron flywheel
revolutionary hot tube ignition (Patent 28022)
exhaust valve controlled by a camshaft allowing high speeds
a speed of 600 rpm, when at the time most engines could only achieve about 120 to 180 rpm.
In 1885, they created the first carburetor, which mixed evaporated gasoline with air to allow its efficient use as fuel. It was used that year on a larger but still compact version of the engine, now with a vertical cylinder, that featured:

1 Horsepower at 600 rpm output
100 cc engine displacement
non cooled insulated cylinder with unregulated hot-tube ignition (patent DRP-28-022)
Daimler baptized it the Standuhr (Grandfather Clock) because of its resemblance to a pendulum clock.


In November 1885, Daimler installed a smaller version of the engine into a wooden bicycle, creating the first motorcycle (patent 36-423 - Vehicle with gas or petroleum engine), and Maybach drove it three kilometers from Cannstatt to Untertürkheim, reaching 12 km/h (7.5 mph). It became known as the Reitwagen.

On 8 March 1886, the inventors bought an American model coach built by Wilhelm Wimpff & Sohn, telling the neighbors that it was a birthday gift for Mrs. Daimler. Maybach supervised the installation of an enlarged 1.5 hp Grandfather Clock engine into the coach, and installed a belt drive to the wheels. The vehicle reached 15 km/h (9.3 mph) when tested on the road to Untertürkheim.

Maybach and Daimler went on to prove the engine in many other ways, including:

On water (1887). It was mounted in a 4.5-metre-long boat which achieved 6 knots (11 km/h). The boat was called the Neckar after the river it was tested on and was registered as patent number DRP 39-367. Motor boat engines would become their main product until the first decade of the 1900s.
More road vehicles, including street cars
In the air. They built the first motorized airship, a balloon based on designs by Dr. Friedrich Hermann Wölfert from Leipzig. They replaced his hand operated drive system and flew over Seelberg successfully on 10 August 1888.





              

                       

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oneslink112/5/2022L'équipe de France a remporté 3 à 1 son huitième de finale face à la Pologne. Olivier Giroud, qui bat à cette occasion le record de Thierry Henry de meilleur buteur de l'histoire des Bleus